Technology and the Author
While I have to confess to losing my temper and being rude to the first microwave that took up residence in my kitchen, in general I am a technophile, especially when it comes to things that make my life easier. Typewriters were a gift to this dysgraphic child; electric typewriters were even better but the advent of word processors and personal computers made my life much easier. Suddenly I could write nearly as fast as I could think, have a machine catch most of my typographical errors and revise my work often and quickly. Paragraphs flew from one end of a composition to the other, split, spliced with other paragraphs, were deleted, then reintroduced almost unrecognisable in new vocabulary, style and brevity. Gone were the days of double spaced writing on yellow legal pads, cutting up pages, numbering paragraphs and setting up a new scheme.
I was among the first teachers to pounce on computers as an aide to drilling arithmetic. I taught my older students to type, save to disc and do their essays on the computer as part of a history/English course. Before the word summative began to haunt the dreams of high school students and teachers, my grade seven students researched certain topics and wrote essays under controlled conditions (the library and the computer lab) to demonstrate they had learned the skills taught in English and history.
Electronic devices make a difference to students with learning differences: blind students can hear text using text-to-speech software, the partially sighted can do homework using machines that magnify textbooks, the dyslexic can use spelling dictionaries and word processors, the deaf have access to FM broadcasters, the physically handicapped have access to a number of tools to help them learn. The electronic devices do not level the playing field, but they allow these students on to it.
I love my MacBook, my Kindle and my iPod Touch because they allow me to write, read, store information and photos and organise myself within a minimum of space. The Kindle has its limitations, but it still reduces the number of books I need to carry on vacation.
Technology Good …
You hear the BUT coming. Yes, here it is: technology can do a great deal for students and educators but sometimes we are dazzled by its magic. Technology does not teach reading, writing or arithmetic. For that we need only very simple tools such as paper, pencil, literature and counters of some sort such as stones, buttons or beans. I have put paper bags over students’ heads to demonstrate unknown variables when teaching algebra and created a dance to demonstrate the relationship between high pressure, low pressure and rain. Everything else is extra and not necessarily helpful.
Before we invest in tools for schools, especially expensive technology, we should ask why we are buying the tools. What, exactly, will it help us teach and how will it help us teach it? Will it be used frequently? How flexible is it? How will the kids respond to it? Finally, is it truly good value as a teaching or learning tool for the money and time that will be spent on it?
When I was learning to teach ESL we were given the rule of thumb, teach new grammar using old vocabulary and new vocabulary using old grammar. When we use technology are we using it to enhance what we are teaching or are we using skills the students already have to teach them how to use the technology. Both are valid.
What are the School’s Computer Labs for?
For example, we have computer labs. Why? We have to teach children how to use the Internet. What do they need to learn about the Internet? How to find information is probably the first thing you think of. The biggest problem with information on the Internet is the variability of the quality.
When children start visiting the computer lab in kindergarten what can they learn about assessing the quality of information? You laugh; you know that kindergarten kids just play games on the computers. The games are chosen to improve the children’s knowledge of letters and numbers, to acquaint them with the keyboard, to improve their manual dexterity and for a number of solid educational reasons. The games would not be in the lab if they were not educational. We hope.
By grades four and five they are doing research but the research is usually on sites handpicked (by their teacher) where the job is to find the information required and make notes or answer questions Taking notes and answering questions are important skills. Doing them in a lab does create a stimulating change of pace from writing notes in the classroom.
However, the students do not have to determine how good the site is as their teacher has already done that. They can not be allowed the freedom to roam the Internet and assess what they find as some of it would be entirely inappropriate. When my sister was concerned that my niece might have scarlet fever, I typed those two words into the search engine and the first site I found had nothing to do with medicine. The difficulty is that by the time students are free to roam the Internet at will, they still have not learned to assess the sites they find.
One Way to Integrate Technology and a Number of Forms of Media:
Starting in the Library Using Indexes, Chapter Headings, Catalogues and Key Words
So how could you teach children of that age to search for and assess the quality of the information they find? You could take them to the library and teach them what they might find in an encyclopaedia, a dictionary, a book on the topic or a thesaurus. Many students don’t realise that if they want to know something about cows, a book on farms might have something. They don’t know that if they have five books in front of them, perhaps only two have a lot of information and the other three should be searched using the index or the chapter titles for a few salient facts. What kind of words should they use to look up information in the index? If they were studying cows, how about bull, calf, cattle, beef, milk, leather, ranches and so on. This is often a new idea to them, but when they start using the Internet knowing how to come up with good keywords will be essential in their searches.
I like to give students an adult crossword to solve after pointing out the encyclopaedias of pop culture, space, writers, sports figures and other specialty references. It becomes a bit of a competition to see who can figure out the answers, using only books. The crosswords are at their most effective if they are difficult.
Assessing the Quality of Information
Once students know how to find information you can teach them to think about what things should make them sceptical about the quality of the knowledge. Which might be more out of date: a book on cows or a book on rockets ships written in the 1950’s? Would a book about farming written by an astronaut be as informative as one written by a farmer? Would a farmer who had studied physics and math at university be able to write a good book on rockets? What kind of books is most likely to provide information? What would you find in a book labelled fiction? Biography? Non-fiction? A search on the online library catalogue has turned up:
It’s ONLY Rocket Science: An Introduction in Plain English Lucy Rogers
Rocket Boys, Homer Hickam
Rocket Science: 50 Flying, Floating, Flipping, Spinning Gadgets Kids Create Themselves Jim Wiese &Tina Cash-Walsh
Sesame Subjects: My First Book about Airplanes and Rockets (Sesame Street) by Kama Einhorn and Christopher Maroney
The Rocket Mike Leonetti & Greg Banning
Now ask the students which books are not likely to help them learn about rockets. What helpful information is missing that they should expect to find in a library catalogue? What other information will they find only by looking at the book? Of the books they think might help them learn, which do they think might have the most information? Which one would they prefer to start with (not always the same one).
Ready for the Internet, More Skills and Boolean Logic *
All of this thinking applies to searching the Internet. Once students have learned how to search for information and having found information, examine the source with a critical eye, they are in a better position to make good use of electronic sources. They will now need to learn how to search effectively using Boolean logic* and how to navigate web sites. Just because they can navigate their favourite web sites doesn’t mean they know how to navigate those which will provide useful information
Students researching cows and rocket ships are just one example of how some of the skills needed on the Internet can be taught and honed elsewhere. Skills like these are transferable and not just from the library to the Internet.
From the Internet to Media Studies
From the Internet the skills transfer neatly to media studies. Here the added value is learning how language, graphics and sound are used to influence consumers. You can show this on Internet sites as well as magazine and television advertising. In fact, it is important to teach detecting bias on Internet sites. In teaching your students you will bring them through the skills of searching for facts and analysing sources to looking for bias and observing how bias can subtly affect people.
Your students will be better equipped to look beyond the razzle-dazzle to the message. This is use of technology in education but not technology for its own sake. This is examining how to use technology and how other peoples’ use of it affects us. With luck you could leave your students with the most valuable lesson of all, the inclination not to take information at face value no matter where it comes from.
*Don’t know what Boolean Logic is? I won’t tell. See this site for a good explanation in how to use it in Internet searches:
Boolean Searching on the Internet: A Primer in Boolean Logic by Laura B. Cohen. Part of Internet Tutorials: your basic guide to the Internet http://www.internettutorials.net/boolean.asp If you teach math, set theory and Venn diagrams, you will be able to do a two for one lesson or reinforce one concept in the other class. Show your students how even the weirdest math has real life applications! How cool is that?